济南水产种苗养殖研究社

Tropheus: Fear Factor(69译)

养鱼交流社区 2019-06-29 21:54:45


蝴蝶的恐惧因素

(帕姆金着)

我不知道关于三湖蝴蝶属的事,但它们绝对是坦噶尼喀湖中最吸引人和最有趣的鱼种之一。你说有趣?或者可能它只是一个疾病的代名词,尤其在一缸鱼团灭之后,或像我一样团灭了一缸、两缸之后。(歪果仁的技术和没好到哪里去嘛!)

有时候我觉得我是唯一一个养死过蝴蝶属的人,但实际上我是唯一一个敢于承认的人。养一批同品种的蝴蝶并依次死亡是一件最令人难过的事情了。但这似乎不能阻止我前进的脚步。(哥们,你这是入坑的节奏!)我是一个真正酷爱蝴蝶的人。我开始从我的错误中学习,随着时间的推移,当我认为我知道了如何饲养它们,这些该死的蝴蝶又会抛给你一个难题!

不管你想饲养哪个种类的蝴蝶,它们基本上都有着共通的日常维护、饮食和繁殖方式。挑选一个你最喜欢的品种,无论它具有鲜明的或棕灰色的外表,你都绝不后悔。没有一个品种好过另一个品种,这完全取决于每个人的喜好。(还是那句我常说的,喜欢才有价值,喜欢才去饲养,不是别人说好就是好。)我爱它们,我养了一群充满乐趣的“蓝面蝴蝶”。它们有很强烈的对比色,黑色的身体和突出的黄色竖纹。当我在野外环境下看到了蝴蝶之后,我准备继续饲养其他的种类,尤其是“红彩虹蝴蝶”。什么品种能成为我的最爱呢?我想可能是“虎皮蝴蝶”吧,它们有紧密的关系,甚至比电视上的任何东西都更有趣,我可以看它们几个小时。

我认为蝴蝶最吸引我的是群体本身的社会结构。我喜欢去买24条以上不分公母的亚成个体,并将它们放入300至380升的缸里后(大概是1米的缸。),离开它们。这意味着让它们安静的待在缸里,不要去惊动它们,不要加入其它鱼类,缸里单养一个品种。随着日常换水和投喂素食饲料,你会惊讶于它们飞快的生长速度。让它们自己建立社会结构,不知不觉间,你会发现一个紧密结合的社会团体。每个人都拥有,且十分清楚自己的社会位置。虽然互咬下巴和彼此追逐仍会发生,但更大的水体给予每条鱼提供领地,更大的密度防止鱼离群。你可以尝试小缸或低密度,但饲养会变得更加困难。

使用的过滤方式并不重要,只要空间足够大。我只是碰巧使用了底部砂石动力过滤系统而已(莫非是同程底滤?),因为我绝大多数缸都使用这种过滤方式。我的丈夫是一个小气鬼(居然是个女的!),但他是正确的,这可能是最经济实用的方法了。你可能会认为这种过滤方式是原始的,已经过时了,但你不能打败它,这是一个行之有效的办法。当然你可以花更多的钱在一个昂贵的过滤上,或买更多的蝴蝶。

有些人更喜欢底部分布砂石的外部过滤器,它们也会是可以的。(砂石是滤材?这个是不是说的过滤桶呢?)可以在缸里到处铺设岩石,或堆放在缸壁边缘。如何给鱼缸造景、或使用什么过滤方式,都不是饲养蝴蝶的关键因素。饲养的关键,我称为“预防性维护”。(预防大于治疗!)如果你能保持水质稳定、提供正确的食物,你就会成功的。是时候自己做一下购买蝴蝶和水质稳定剂的预算了。当你饲养蝴蝶时,克服水质波动是重要因素。

除了干净的水质条件,PH值应高于8,低于9。我没有说它们不会生存、甚至繁殖,在较低的PH值的环境中,但在最适宜的环境下,它们会更加的活跃,拥有更好的体色和更多健康卵的产生。温度也是另外一个因素,我认为它们最适宜的温度大约在24至26℃。我必须承认,我很惊讶于坦噶尼喀湖的温度,因为它比我想象得要暖和得多。然而,我认为,更高的温度会让它们更加积极,但会缩短它们的寿命,危害它们的水质环境。一个稳定的温度是很重要的,上下波动对它们都是不好的。(总体来说就是保持水质稳定!)

它们的食谱很简单,以螺旋藻为主,搭配以如大豆、麦芽等蔬菜的薄片或颗粒就可以。我不喜欢使用任何动物器官作为食物来喂我的鱼。不要投喂它们不需要的食物。如果你想款待它们,我建议喂生菜、冰冻豌豆,或海藻薄片。偶尔我会喂自制的由豌豆和虾组成的食物。它们可能前几次需要来进行适应,然后进行饕餮盛宴。你可以完全控制你自己,来考虑到蝴蝶饮食

蝴蝶很容易吃的太多,最好一天喂一次或两次,而且最好在几分钟内吃完。如果有食物残留在缸底,那就是你喂的太多了。这是新手最容易犯的错误是,所以减少喂食量,比多喂要好得多。在坦湖中可以很明显的发现,他们不断地在岩石上觅食,这就是它们一天所要做的事情。可以让你缸里的岩石或底部长满藻类,让它们啃食。我真的认为这样做可以让它们忙碌起来,从而减少追逐。只要是绿色的藻,对鱼就是好的。

你可以在健康食品店中购买螺旋藻孢子,自己在缸中培养螺旋藻。打开你的灯几个星期时间后,在缸中的岩石和背部就有可能有长势很好的绿藻。如果你增加灯泡的话,希望你能够保持藻类的增长速度快于蝴蝶啃食的速度。当你在缸中添加一些螺旋藻粉,蝴蝶会吃一些,而且螺旋藻粉不会伤害鱼类。如果在其他缸中有藻类的岩石没被吃掉,你的蝴蝶会因此而爱上你的。

蝴蝶携带了两个死亡信息:侵略和腹水。这两点是蝴蝶死亡的主要原因,但在我们的缸中都是完全可控的。

这些鱼的打斗行为是难以置信的,它们满嘴都是锉刀般的牙齿,可以瞬间咬伤其他鱼。如果你曾经看到个体趴在鱼缸的角落,你最好把它们捞出来,因为它们通常不会存活太久。较高的温度和较差的水质环境,可能会引起打斗,另一个原因是频率且大量的换水。如果你能保持足够大的缸体和足够大的密度,你不需要发抖的鱼,因为它有时会导致更多的问题。饲养亚成而不是购买成体,是避免打斗的另外一个关键点,当它们在一起长大后,它们学会了如何互相包容。

腹水的问题不是一个真正的黑与白定义的。当一个养鱼爱好者不知道什么原因死鱼的时候,他们通常会说这是腹水。我们所知道的,常见的共通特征就是出现了紧迫感。紧迫感可能是由于较差的水质环境、错误的食物、缸内其他好斗的鱼种、缸体较小、PH和温度错误等等因素造成的,当你有这些问题时,麻烦就要来了。蝴蝶比较担心病毒感染,任何日常工作的变化都可能触发紧迫感,如饮食的变化、水质环境的恶化、移入新缸、或加入新鱼无论他们是否是同一品种。

所以,引起的原因是一种寄生虫,一种细菌还是哪里阻塞了呢?其实它可能是其中一个或者全部。当鱼在某些类型的紧迫感下,似乎发生了什么事,它会导致免疫系统的崩溃,从而引起各种各样的问题。

比如:

1、已经在鱼体内的寄生虫/病原体/鞭毛虫会活跃起来,而且会成倍的繁殖,鱼有紧迫感之后,不能像健康时那样抵御它们;

2、有时它开始分解体表的黏液,这可能是由细菌感染引起的;

3、过量喂错误的食物,是导致肠道消化问题或阻塞的主要原因;

4、其他的时候鱼可以是干瘪的,它们实际上看起来像肚子被吸入,似乎被饿死。

认识早期腹水的症状是能够诊断的一个重要因素。我只能够在初期阶段使用Clout来治愈它。(貌似Clout是一种药物?类似于大白片吗?)为什么使用Clout治疗是有争议呢,因为它是一种寄生虫药,但这是我发现能够帮我治疗疾病的唯一药物。如果你使用Clout治疗第一轮没什么效果,很多人都使用双倍的药量进行治疗。在这一点上,你还有什么损失的呢?

注意观赏你的鱼,对你来说是至关重要的。不吃食似乎是腹水的第一个症状,同时伴有白色线状粪便,伴有肛门炎症,缩鳍,不游动等症状。通常一旦鱼已经腹水了,不仅仅是肚子凸起来,这时通常已经太迟了,它们死了。在我能发现腹水之前,已经养死了不少蝴蝶鱼,现在我可以在1米以外就发现症状。(真是吹牛都不打草稿啊!拿望远镜看?)

一旦你的蝴蝶群体成熟了,任其发展,繁殖只是时间的问题。它们可能需要坚持追求年轻的雌性几次,通常需要21至28天。给它们一个机会,它们就会证明给你看。一旦我有了一个稳定繁殖的群体,一个月左右的时间,当我每周给鱼缸换水的时候,我会检查每个雌性个体去查看它们是否含卵了。这都取决于你有多努力无论你想要孵化鱼卵,或扣取鱼苗,孵卵需要坚持下去。我是一个懒惰的养鱼人,孵卵对我来说是一个繁重的工作,我通常会在鱼卵出了头和尾后把它们取出,大概产卵后14天左右的阶段,你就不需要孵卵了。你甚至可以让雌鱼吐卵在缸里,然后定期捞出鱼苗即可。我从没有看到成体蝴蝶食土吃鱼苗,如果不将鱼苗捞出,最后它们可能会并入群体中。我喜欢喂鱼苗新孵化的丰年虾,直到鱼苗至少2.5至4cm。在这之后就只喂素食。

由于蝴蝶是雌性口孵型繁殖,鱼卵非常小,市场上并不多见,有一个好的尺寸群体,你可以轻松地支持你的兴趣爱好。大多数养鱼爱好者会很乐意为其他蝴蝶品种,交易任何他们有的东西。

记住你没有什么可害怕的,你可以控制水质变化、适当的食物和一点小常识,不应该对蝴蝶有任何恐惧因素。致力于饲养喜欢的鱼在缸里,定期观察这些群体。通过了解它们,你可以清楚蝴蝶群体发生了什么。

事实是蝴蝶可能比其他三湖慈鲷的饲养难度更大,没那么包容彼此。但是,不能让这些原因组织你去尝试,因为它们真的是一群有趣的、迷人的、共同生活的坦湖慈鲷。





Tropheus: Fear Factor

By Pam Chin, 2000. ?printer Published 26-Apr-2004

I don't know what it is about the genus?Tropheus, but they are definitely one of the most fascinating and fun fish to come out of Lake Tanganyika. Fun you say? Or could that just be a sick definition, especially after killing off a tank, or as in my case a tank or two!

Sometimes I think I am the only person that has ever killed?Tropheus, in reality I am the only person that will admit it!!! There is nothing more embarrassing then getting the same type of?Tropheus?with a friend and then you are the first one to kill them off. But, that hasn't seemed to stop me, from wanting more. I am truly a?Tropheus?glutton. I have learned from my mistakes, and I have gotten better with time, but just when I think I know it all, these darn?Tropheus?will pull a new one.

It doesn't matter which species you want to work with, as they are all basically the same when it comes to maintenance, diet and spawning. Pick the one you like the best, whether you go for outstanding color or just a plain brown you will not regret it. There isn't one better than other, it really depends on your personal preferences. I love them all, I have a group of?Tropheus duboisi?"halembe" coming up, and they have been so much fun. They have a nice contrast in color with their black body, and the extra wide yellow band. And I am going through a?Tropheus mooriiphase right now too, after seeing them in the wild, I wanted to bring them all home especially the "red rainbow." And what would be my all time favorite? Well that would have to be my group of?Tropheus brichardi"kipili," talk about a tight knit pack, they are more entertaining than anything on TV, I can watch them for hours.

I think what is most fascinating to me is the social structure of the group itself. I like to buy them young, and unsexable, around 24 or more, and place them in an 300 - 380 liter (80 - 100 gallon) tank, and just walk away from them. What that means is let them be, don't move them around, don't add any tank mates, make this a species only tank. Along with frequent water changes and veggie only foods, you will be amazed at how fast they will grow. Let their pecking order be defined, and before you know it you literally have a social community, which consists of a tightly bonded group. Everybody knows everybody, and everyone has there own position. Jaw locking and chasing is still going to happen, but larger tanks provide a place for everyone to call their own, and larger groups prevent one fish from getting singled out. You can do it with smaller groups and smaller tanks, but it is going to be harder.

The type of filtration you use is really not an issue as long as you have plenty of it. I just happen to be using an under gravel filters with powerheads, because that is what I have on most of my large tanks. My husband is a cheapskate, but he is right, it probably is the most economic way to go. You may think this type of a set up is primitive, and old fashion but you can't beat a UG filter with powerheads, it is a proven method. You could always spend more money on a fancy smancy filter, or buy moreTropheus!

Some people prefer outside filters and a sandy substrate scattered on the bottom, this will work too. You can put rocks all across the tank or you can split your rocks in piles to the sides of the aquarium. It is not how you decorate your tank or what method of filtration you use that is the secret to keeping?Tropheus. The key to the game is what I call "preventative maintenance." If you stay ahead of your water changes, and provide the right foods, you will be successful. It is time to take some of the?Tropheus?budget and buy a Python water changer, or make your own. Get over it; water changes are part of fish keeping and an important factor when keeping?Tropheus.

In addition to immaculate water conditions, the pH should be in the high 8's or low 9's. I am not saying they won't survive in a lower pH, or even breed, but with the optimum conditions they will be more active, have better color and larger healthier spawns. Temperature can also be a factor; I think it is best to keep them around 24° - 26° Celsius (76 - 78 F). I must admit that I was very surprised at the temperature in Lake Tanganyika as it was much warmer than I had imagined. However, I think that higher temperatures make them more aggressive, shorten their life span, and it can also compromise your water conditions. A steady temperature is also important, the up and down fluctuation is not good for them.

Their diet is easy, a spirulina based flake or pellet with a vegetable filler like soy, or wheat germ. I don't like any warm animal parts in the foods that I feed to any of my fish. Don't let them guilt you into feeding them foods that they don't need. If you want to give them a treat, I suggest feeding them lettuce, frozen green peas, or seaweed paper. Occasionally I will feed homemade food made from peas and shrimp. It might take them a couple of times before they catch on, but then it will be a feeding frenzy. Think of food for?Tropheus?as one factor that you have total control over providing you can control yourself.

It is easy to overfeed your?Tropheus; it is best to only feed once or twice a day, and no more than they can eat in a couple minutes. If any of the food makes it to the bottom of the tank, then you have fed way too much. This is the biggest mistake that hobbyists make, it is much better to underfeed this species, than overfeed. It was evident in the lake that, they are constantly grazing on the rocks, this is all they do, all day long. Encourage the algae to grow on the back of your tank and rocks, so they have something to graze on. I really think this keeps them busy and cuts down on the chasing. As long as it is green it is good for your fish.

Grow your own spirulina algae by adding spirulina spores, to your tank that you can buy at the health food store. Leave your lights on all the time for a couple of weeks, and it is possible to get a good growth of super green algae growing on the rocks and the back of your tank. If you add light bulbs, hopefully you can keep the algae growing faster than the fish can eat it. The fish might eat some of this spirulina powder, when you add it to your tank but it doesn't hurt them. If you have rocks with algae in other tanks that is not being eaten, then for heaven sakes rotate the rocks around your?Tropheus?will love you for it.

Tropheus?bring with them two death cards: aggression and bloat. These are the two main reasons for?Tropheus?deaths in our tanks, both of which are totally controllable.?

Aggression among these fish can be unbelievable, they have a mouth full of teeth, that are the rasping type and they can de-scale another fish in moments. If you ever see individuals up in the corners of your tank, you better get them out, because they usually don't last long after that. Higher temperatures and poor water conditions can contribute to aggression, just another reason to keep your water changes frequent and massive. If you keep them in large enough tank and a large group, you don't need dither fish, which can sometimes cause more problems. Raising up a young group rather than buying adults is another key to less aggression, when they grow up together they learn to tolerate each other better.

The problem with bloat is that there really isn't a black and white definition of it. When a hobbyist starts losing fish and they don't know what the cause is, they usually say it was bloat. What we do know is that stress appears to be the common denominator. The stress can be caused from poor water conditions, wrong diet, aggressive tank mates, undersized tank, wrong pH, wrong temperature, etc., and when you have a couple of these problems it seems to be a recipe for trouble.?Tropheus?are worry warts, and any change in their normal routine can trigger stress, like changes in their diet, deteriorating water conditions, moving a long established group to a new tank, or the introduction of other fish whether they are the same species or not.

So, is it a parasite, a bacteria or a blockage?? Actually it might be one or all. What seems to happen is when the fish is under some type of stress, it causes a break down in the immunity system and this can cause all sorts of problems. For example:

  1. Parasites/pathogens/flagellates already in the fishes system can bloom, and multiply extremely fast, and since the fish is stressed, it can't fight this off, like they normally would.

  2. Sometimes it starts with the slime coat breaking down, which could be caused by a bacterial infection.

  3. Over feeding is a big factor along with feeding the wrong foods, which can cause digestive problems and/or blockages in the intestinal track.

  4. Other times fish can get what I call reverse bloat, where they actually look like their stomachs are sucked in, and they appear to be starving to death.

Recognizing the early signs of bloat is a big factor in being able to diagnose it. I have only been able to cure it at the earliest stages with Clout. Why Clout works is a debate, as it is a parasitic medicine, but this is the only medication that I have found that works for me. If your first round with Clout doesn't seem to work, there are many who have been known to double the dosage and treat again. At this point what do you have to lose?

Observing your fish, so that you can get a jump on it is critical. Not eating seems to be the first symptom to bloat, but so are stringy white feces, along with vent inflammation, fins clamped tight to the body, and not swimming. Usually once the fish has actually bloated, with the scales sticking out, not just a swollen belly, it is usually too late, their dead. I have killed quite a fewTropheus?before I was able to figure this out, now I can see it a mile away.

Once your group matures, it will only be a matter of time before nature takes its course. It may take the young females a few times before they hold to term, which is usually about 21- 28 days. Give them a chance and they will figure it out. Once I have the group established and spawning, then once a month or so, when I am doing a weekly water change to the tank, I will check each female to see if they are holding. Then it depends on how hard you want to work at it whether you want to tumble the eggs, or only strip the fry that is further along and don't require tumbling. I am a lazy aquarist and tumbling can be hard work, I usually take them if the heads and tails have popped out, at this stage around 14 days post spawn, you don't have to use a tumbler. You can even let the females spit in the tank, and then periodically remove these fry. I have never seen adultTropheus?attempt to eat the fry, if not removed eventually they will merge into the group. I like to feed the fry freshly hatched baby brine shrimp until they are at least 2.5 to 4.0 cm (1 to 1-1/2".) After that it is green foods only.

Since?Tropheus?are maternal mouth brooders, and spawns are small there never seems to be too many of them on the market, and with a good size group, you can easily help support your habit. Most hobbyists will gladly trade anything they have for any kind of?Tropheus!

Remember that you have nothing to fear, you are the one who is in control, with a regular schedule for water changes, the proper foods and a little common sense, there shouldn't be any fear factor with?Tropheus. Dedicate a tank to your favorite species, and regularly observe your group. By getting to know them, you can keep up with what is going on in your?Tropheuscommunity.

The facts are that?Tropheus?may be a bit more difficult than other Rift Lake Cichlids, and it is true that they are not as forgiving. But, don't let that stop you from giving them a try, as they really are a fun and fascinating group of cichlids to work with!



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